The natural sciences library, which grew along with the Natural History Cabinet, already enjoyed an excellent reputation at the end of the 18th century. The holdings collected up to 1900 amount to about 3,300 volumes, which today have their place in the castle library of Heidecksburg Palace. The entire library collection, including publications after 1900, comprises around 10,000 volumes, with an upward trend due to national and international exchanges of literature.
The majority of the archive holdings, that is related to the history of the museum and the collections, is located in the State Archives of Thuringia | Thuringian State Archive Rudolstadt, likewise located on the premises of Heidecksburg Palace. Smaller archival holdings, e.g. inventory catalogues, correspondence, file notes and autographs are also available at the museum.